Shocking Surprise About Apple’s Solar Farm

Apple announced back in February its intent to spend $850 million on a solar farm in far southeastern Monterey County in California. I visited the site to share some stunning news about the plan and why it doesn’t solve any actual problems. Watch this video and see what the problem is with Apple’s solar farm and what we really should be doing.

And while I was driving the backroads of southeastern Monterey county, California, I was struck by the rugged beauty of the hills and had a nice visit with a couple of antelope.

Pronghorn antelope alongside Cholame Valley Rd
Pronghorn antelope alongside Cholame Valley Rd

And this is the nearby high power transmission lines connecting Paso Robles with the Central Valley, crossing Cholame Valley Rd near San Miguel, California.


Geothermal Power: Clean, Renewable, Baseload Energy

Geothermal Power
The Leathers geothermal power plant in Calipatria, CA. Courtesy U.S.D.O.E.

Why shouldn’t we have clean, renewable, base load power from a domestic source? It isn’t solar (made in China and doesn’t work when the sun isn’t shining) or wind (kills golden eagles and doesn’t work when the wind isn’t blowing hard enough), it is geothermal!

From the United States Department of Energy:

What are the benefits of using geothermal energy?

Answer: Several attributes make it a good source of energy.

  • First, it’s clean. Energy can be extracted without burning a fossil fuel such as coal, gas, or oil. Geothermal fields produce only about one-sixth of the carbon dioxide that a relatively clean natural-gas-fueled power plant produces, and very little if any, of the nitrous oxide or sulfur-bearing gases. Binary plants, which are closed cycle operations, release essentially no emissions.
  • Geothermal energy is available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Geothermal power plants have average availabilities of 90% or higher, compared to about 75% for coal plants.
  • Geothermal power is homegrown, reducing our dependence on foreign oil.

Why is geothermal energy a renewable resource?

Answer: Because its source is the almost unlimited amount of heat generated by the Earth’s core. Even in geothermal areas dependent on a reservoir of hot water, the volume taken out can be reinjected, making it a sustainable energy source.

What are the environmental impacts of using geothermal energy?

Answer: Geothermal technologies offer many environmental advantages over conventional power generation:

  • Emissions are low. Only excess steam is emitted by geothermal flash plants. No air emissions or liquids are discharged by binary geothermal plants, which are projected to become the dominant technology in the near future.
  • Salts and dissolved minerals contained in geothermal fluids are usually reinjected with excess water back into the reservoir at a depth well below groundwater aquifers. This recycles the geothermal water and replenishes the reservoir. The City of Santa Rosa, California, pipes the city’s treated wastewater up to The Geysers power plants to be used for reinjection fluid. This system will prolong the life of the reservoir as it recycles the treated wastewater.
  • Some geothermal plants do produce some solid materials, or sludges, that require disposal in approved sites. Some of these solids are now being extracted for sale (zinc, silica, and sulfur, for example), making the resource even more valuable and environmentally friendly.

What is the visual impact of geothermal technologies?

Answer: District heating systems and geothermal heat pumps are easily integrated into communities with almost no visual impact. Geothermal power plants use relatively small acreages, and don’t require storage, transportation, or combustion of fuels. Either no emissions or just steam are visible. These qualities reduce the overall visual impact of power plants in scenic regions.

Is it possible to deplete geothermal reservoirs?

Answer: The long-term sustainability of geothermal energy production has been demonstrated at the Lardarello field in Italy since 1913, at the Wairakei field in New Zealand since 1958, and at The Geysers field in California since 1960. Pressure and production declines have been experienced at some plants, and operators have begun reinjecting water to maintain reservoir pressure. The City of Santa Rosa, California, pipes its treated wastewater up to The Geysers to be used as reinjection fluid, thereby prolonging the life of the reservoir while recycling the treated wastewater.

How much does geothermal energy cost per kilowatt-hour (kWh)?

Answer: At The Geysers, power is sold at $0.03 to $0.035 per kWh. A power plant built today would probably require about $0.05 per kWh. Some plants can charge more during peak demand periods.

What does it cost to develop a geothermal power plant?

Answer: Costs of a geothermal plant are heavily weighted toward early expenses, rather than fuel to keep them running. Well drilling and pipeline construction occur first, followed by resource analysis of the drilling information. Next is design of the actual plant. Power plant construction is usually completed concurrent with final field development. The initial cost for the field and power plant is around $2500 per installed kW in the U.S., probably $3000 to $5000/kWe for a small (<1Mwe) power plant. Operating and maintenance costs range from $0.01 to $0.03 per kWh. Most geothermal power plants can run at greater than 90% availability (i.e., producing more than 90% of the time), but running at 97% or 98% can increase maintenance costs. Higher-priced electricity justifies running the plant 98% of the time because the resulting higher maintenance costs are recovered.

How Geothermal Energy Works

You’ve heard Ethan many times speak and write of geothermal energy as the only clean, renewable, baseload power source. This is an excellent video demonstrating the concepts.

Transcript of the video:

Geothermal energy gives us a steady supply of electrical power, with minimal environmental impact!

Here is the basic process.

Water, in underground reservoirs, is heated to high temperatures by magma.

Production wells, drilled up to 10,000 feet below the earth’s surface, tap into this hot fluid.

Under its own pressure, the fluid flows through these wells toward the surface.

As it travels, the pressure lessens, causing a small amount to become steam.

Together, the hot fluid and steam move through a surface pipeline to a wellhead separator where the pressure is reduced.

Here, most of the fluid vaporizes and “flashes” into high-pressure steam.

Any fluid not flashed into steam moves to a standard-pressure crystallizer – to produce standard-pressure steam.

Remaining fluid is then flashed at a lower pressure to create low-pressure steam.

All steam created in the plant is sent to a turbine on site.

The force of the steam spins the turbine’s blades – which turns a shaft connected to an electrical generator.

An electrical charge is created, and directed to a transformer where the voltage is increased and sent down power lines.

Any fluids not flashed into steam return to the underground reservoir where, in time, they will be reheated and re-used.

Geothermal energy. A simple, clean and renewable energy source!